Sunday, May 31, 2015

Insurance of Life,Desi Cow's milk!

Insure your Life by Desi Cow's Milk!

Desi cow milk protects us from deadly diseases, Exotic (foreign) breed of cows has genes which increase elements of disease.This has come out from the research work done by AS Trusvel of Biochemistry dept. of Human Nutrition Unit University.

There is a lot of protein in Indian Cow's Milk
Milk has Beta-Casein protein which is of a1 & a2 type.a1 protein is harmful to health,whereas a2 protein is good for health. According to AS Trusvel Indian cow breeds(Tharparker,Gangatiri,Sahiwal,Haryana etc) genes have a2.
Exotic cows(Holstein Freezon and Jersey) have a1 genes which increase risk of these diseases.According to research Holstein Freezon cow milk has a1 type 60 to 70% Beta Casein and Jersey cow milk has up to 40%.
Exotic cow breed has so much a1 type beta casein that it increases risk of diabetes many times.
a2 milk is 100% nature fresh Desi cow's milk which you may find easier to digest than regular cow's milk.

Do you experience indigestion when you have milk?
Symptoms of indigestion:
1)feeling uncomfortably full or heavy.
3)bringing food back up from your stomach.
5)feeling sick.

For millions of people it may not be lactose intolerance, but they may be reacting to intolerance to a1 protein.

Scientific side
a1 milk releases a peptide called BCM 7(Beta Casein Morphine 7).The peptide is not broken down into amino acid making it impossible to digest and has been associated with a very large number of diseases.Thus BCM 7 is the "Devil in Milk" which is not present in desi cow's milk.

Milk in detail

1)Milk consists of about 80% of water.
2)Remaining 15% is fat,minerals, proteins and sugar lactose.
3)80% protein is Casein and 20% Whey.
4)Beta Casein is 30% of total protein content in cow milk.

Milk Nutrition
Milk is one of the richest food sources of calcium which helps build strong bones and healthy teeth.
According to the Dairy Council, a 200 ml glass of cow milk can provide over half (55%) of a child's daily calcium requirement and over one third (35%) for an adult.

Sooo.., insure life by ensuring you drink Desi cow's milk which has a2 type beta casein protein.

So well said,
Insurance of Life,Desi cow's milk!
Ensure you drink Desi cow's milk if you want to prevent diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

Saturday, May 30, 2015

Wide Area Network or WAN

WAN spans a large geographical area,often a country or continent. The job of the subnet is to carry messages from host to host,just as telephone system carries words from speaker to listener.
    In most wide area n/ws,the subnet consists of 2 distinct components : transmission lines & switching elements.
Transmission lines move bits between machines. They can be made of copper wire,optical fiber or even radio links.
When data arrive on an incoming line,the switching element must choose an outgoing line on which to forward them.
Switching element is also called router.

Next:WAN contn'd 

Habitat and Adaptation in Amphibia continued - Amphibious forms

Amphibious Forms

These are certain amphibians which can live on land and water with same expertise eg.some animals have swimming mode of locomotion in water and jumping habit on land.They use their hind limb for swimming in place of tail fin as in case of aquatic amphibians. Aquatic adaptations found in these Anurans are as follows-
1)Compact boat shaped body.
2)Highly developed powerful muscles in hind limbs for effective swimming strokes.
3)Webbed hind limb digits.
4)Cutaneous respiration.

Next:Burrowing Forms

Friday, May 29, 2015

Google's Teddy Bear will take care of children!

In near future toys will not only be for playing of children, but they will also take care of children.
    Google has patented internet toys Hollice.These toys will control the whole house,they will listen to children while they are talking and thus will perform detective activity on children. These toys in the shape of Teddy Bear will control TV,music system and electricity.

A new Human Species found in Africa

    Remains of a new species of humans have been found in Afar region of Ethiopia in Africa.
   These are 33 to 35 years old.According to research work published in Science Magazine 'Nature' this new species has been named 'Australopithecus deyiremeda'.

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Fruit Art by Watermelon

Computer Ergonomics

Unfortunately prolonged postures, coupled with high levels of concentration & the occasional frustration of things going less than perfectly can lead to physical problems. A little knowledge of principles of ergonomics, how people interact safely & efficiently with machines & their work environment can save a lot of discomfort & maximize both productivity & enjoyment.

Machine setup

You must be able to see what you are doing easily to avoid eye strain & neck pain.Have adequate light.

Experiment with chair height and tilt until you get it the way your body likes.

Be sure to get the height right to prevent too much bend at the wrist & have some support. The arms should hang loose to prevent the shoulder muscles from cramping.

The continual clicking & small,precise motions involved in mouse use are a repetitive action that can be a health hazard.A few basic rules can help-
1)Hold mouse loosely. Use a light touch when you click.
2)Use your whole arm & shoulder to move the mouse not just your wrist.
3)Keep wrist relaxed & neutral not bent.
4)Avoid prolonged postures.Rotate your shoulders,gently shake your hands & fingers.

Human Set Up

Footrests help as cushions if your chair is not providing adequate support.

Look away from the screen occasionally. Blinking moistens the eyes to prevent burning from dryness.

Warm Up
Do neck stretches,wrist wiggles & leg stretches before login

At least once an hour,get right up off your seat & walk around, stretch,yawn,get the blood flowing & stimulate the joints.

Habitat and adaptation in Amphibia Page 6- Aquatic Forms

They are found to inhabit water bodies and adopt swimming mode of locomotion.They have certain modifications for swimming purpose as well as aquatic habitat.
1)Eel type body construction.
2)Presence of gills for respiration.
3)Development of fins.
4)Presence of weak limbs.
5)Lidless eyes.
Eg.Salamander,Proteus etc

Continued on Page 7 - Amphibious Forms

Reduce Fast Food Craving by Cashewnuts,Almonds

Does your child make faces when you give him fruits-veggies, milk,curd?
Does your child want to eat pizza-burger,noodles from breakfast to dinner?If yes,almonds,groundnut or boiled eggs along with lunch.This has been suggested by Missouri University Researchers?
   These protein rich foods not only fulfil satire for food but they also reduce craving for fast food.These play a vital role in reducing the danger by type-2 diabetes, heart disease,weightgain and death due to stroke.
Under Hither Lady,Researchers studied the food habits in 1000 children 13 to 19 years of age.They found out whether deficit of some nutrient was the basis of craving for fast food. By research it was found that taking less protein rich food was the main reason for craving for fast food.

Enemies of Weight Gain
Almond,groundnut, egg, fish,pulses,beans,curd,pumpkin seeds

Soya Products
sprouted soybean, soya nuggets, soya milk,soya pander,tofu,soya chips

Other Benefits
1)Limit cholesterol and reduce risk of heart disease.
2)Increase memory & logic capability.
3)Good for hair,bring glow to skin.

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Keep an eye distance of 25 inch from computer to avoid eye problems!

Holidays have started & children are spending much of their time on mobile & computers.WHO has reported that children are spending much of their time on indoor games rather than
outdoor games.According to report,more than 15% of children are spending continuous 4 hours on TV due to which they are suffering from eye problems.
Apart from eyes,neck,shoulders, back are also affected & children become fatigued.

Dry eye syndrome
When children play on mobile or computer their eye is in direct contact with light,that's why eye is the most adversely affected.
Dry eye syndrome is caused by the rays coming out of mobile & computer. Tears or moisture coming out if eyes protects the cornea or conjunctiva from drying.We have a layer of moisture in our eyes that gives eyelids glistening. Due to this eyelids can be blinked easily.Water in eyes dries up due to working for long hours on computers & consequently eyes become weak.

If we don't take a correct posture on computers,it can affect our neck,back & eyes.Continuous typing can bring swelling in wrist of children. Playing games for long hours on mobile can create twisted fingers in children.


1)After every 1 hour close your eyes for 10 minutes.
2)Keep on blinking your eyes while working on mobile or computer.
3)Add antiglower screen on computer screen.This will reduce harmful rays.
4)Keep a 25 inch distance from computer screen.
5)Keep a distance of 16 inch from mobile screen.
6)Keep back straight while working on computer.
7)The other end of chair should be straight.

1)Don't use old specs while working on computer.
2)If computer is old change screen.Rays from screen are harmful to eyes.

Networking continued Page 5 - Mesh Network

Mesh network

Mesh network connect all computers to each other.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh network


1)The cable requirements are high.
2)Mesh n/WS are difficult to install because each device must be linked directly to all other devices.


1)Alternative paths allow each computer to balance the load to other computer systems in the n/w.Eg. telephone exchange
2)Mesh topology resist media failure better than other topologies.

Continued on Page 6-WAN

Habitat and Adaptation in Amphibia continued Page 5-Terrestrial Forms

Terrestrial forms

They are toads and frogs. They are less dependent on water for their survival. They require water only during breeding season. For locomotion they have jumping habit and in order to avoid enemies they have small and stout body.For locomotion they have certain modifications as-
1)Elongation of hindlimb and loss of tail.
2)Development of powerful muscles.
3)Shortening of vertebral column with very little mobility to avoid jerk during jumping.
4)Attachment of pelvic girdle to vertebral column is shifted quite forward.
Eg. Rana,Bufo etc.

Continued on Page 6

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

What is Bada Mangal in India?

300 to 400 years back a Lucknow Muslim started doing Pooja arrangements (arrangements-phoolmala(flower garland),besan ladoo,orange tika) after some days of Hanumanji's Birthday. Afterwords,other people also started doing the same.Gradually,people extended it till 4 Tuesdays. From then onwards,this Pooja(Bada Mangal) is going on in Lucknow.

Networking continued Page 4-Tree Network

Tree network

Tree network also known as hierarchical n/w.Eg. organisation headquarter->regional office->district office

1)Easy to extend.
2)It is possible to disconnect the whole branches of n/w from main structure.

Dependent on root.

Continued on Page 5 - Mesh Network

Habitat and Adaptations in Amphibia continued Page 4

They have not been to leave water completely. Modern amphibian forms are reported to inhabit many possible habitat as aquatic, burrowing, arborial and other possible habitats. In these forms modification or adaptation take place according to habitat. These habitats are listed below along with modification found in these amphibians:
Terrestrial forms
Aquatic firms
Amphibious forms
Burrowing forms
Arborial forms

Continued on Page 5

Monday, May 25, 2015

Networking continued Page 3 - Star network

Page 3

Star network

This topology uses central hub to which all components are connected. Central hub is host computer & at the end of each connection is a terminal.

Star network

A star n/w uses a significant amount of cable.

Failure in 1 of the terminals does not affect any other terminal, failure of central hub affects all terminals.

Continued on Page 4 -Tree Network

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Adaptation and Habits of Amphibia (Page 3)

Page 3
Amphibians are mainly aquatic but they live on land and fresh water also.They are usually confined to neighborhood of slowly moving fresh water or stagnant water.This is particularly true for great majority of species where eggs are laid in water.But there are numerous exceptions in which either the development of young ones take without water or parents carry eggs on their bodies during development. Such forms are confined to land only and called terrestrial forms.Apart from this habit,breeding habit ,protective habit which are peculiar in these amphibians.

Continued on Page 4


Serves: 3

Ingredients :
Black Gram(urad dal).   1/2 cup
Rice      2cup
Salt.       1tsp

Method :

1)Mix black Gram and rice in 2 glass water.Soak for 10 minutes.
2)Add salt.Pressure cook with 1 whistle.
3)Put on low flame for 5 minutes.
4)Remove from gas.Let pressure release.

Khichri is ready.Serve with 1 to 2 tsp butter(desi ghee) on khichri per plate.
Its yummy!

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Be good,do good!

When a bird is alive..It eats Ants.When the bird is dead..Ants eat the bird.Time and Circumstances can change at any time.Don't devalue or hurt anyone in life.You may be powerful today.But remember.Time is more powerful than you!One tree makes a million matchsticks... Only one matchstick needed to burn a million trees...So be good and do good.

Story of Mahatma Buddha continued Page 4

Kondanna,the leader amongst the 5 attained the first stage of enlightenment as he understood all that Buddha taught.Mahatma Buddha ordained him as a monk and the others as well.Soon,they became the enlightened ones and formed the first association or sangha.
With time,Buddha had 60 disciples. He told them,"Go and spread my teachings, so that more people get freedom from sufferings."
    After a while,Mahatma Buddha went back to Rajagriha with his disciples. He met King Bimbisara who became his disciple. Over the years Buddha continued to preach travelling from place to place.King Suddhodhana too was ordained by Buddha.Mahatma Buddha also ordained Mahaprajapati Gotami,his foster mother who became the first nun of Buddhism.
    Buddha preached for 45years.Thousands of people influenced by his teachings joined the sangha.When Buddha was80 years old,he travelled towards foothills of Himalayas with his chief attendant and a few other disciples.A blacksmith Cunda offered them a meal.A little later,Mahatma Buddha fell severely I'll.However,he went to Kusinara where Amanda prepared a bed for him under 2 Sal trees.
It was then that Mahatma Buddha announced that he would soon attain Parinirvana(a deathless state).Meanwhile, hearing of his forthcoming demise,people rushed to meet him.A wandering ascetic named Subhadda was among them. He became the last person to be ordained by Buddha.Before entering Parinirvana,Buddha's final message was that 'Every human should strive for liberation as nothing lasts forever.'

Friday, May 22, 2015

Craft made from Grapes

Craft Ideas

Make all this from Grapes and Toothpick.
You can even use this idea to make Salad or Fruit Chaat.

Benefits of eating Grapes:

1)It has lots of calcium which is good for bones.

2)Grapes have the most Potassium which is good for heart and digestion.

3)It is a good source of vitamin C.It reduces deficiency of blood.According to recent research it has been found to be beneficial for eyes.

Story of a Fish


1)I have learned to seek my happiness by limiting my desires,rather than in attempting to satisfy them.

2)It is not how much we have,but how much we enjoy,that makes happiness.

3)The place to be happy is here.The time to be happy is now.The way to be happy is to make others so.

4)The secret of happiness is not in doing what one likes,but in liking what one has to do.The secret of happiness is not in doing what one likes,but in liking what one has to do.

Compiled from Kabir Jyoti

Thursday, May 21, 2015

Story of Mahatma Buddha continued Page 3

Page 3

One day in Rajagriha,Siddhartha saw a flock of sheep being sacrificed under the ruling king,Bimbisara's orders.He at once stopped the sacrifice saying,"Life is extremely precious. All living creatures have a desire to live."
    His powerful yet simple words greatly affected Bimbisara who requested Siddhartha to stay.But he declined, promising to return.
    Soon,Siddhartha left Rajagriha and joined 2 sages who taught him how to reach a deep state of meditation. But he still didn't find the answer which he was looking for. After sometime, Siddhartha met 5 ascetics with whom Siddhartha practiced severe starvation. The 5 ascetics soon became his followers.However, starvation so weakened his body that 1 day,Siddhartha collapsed and fell into a river and almost drowned.It was then that he reconsidered his path.
   He realized the nature and causes of human suffering and the necessary steps to eliminate it.He also identified the 4 noble truths and the 8 fold path by which one could attain Nirvana-a state of supreme liberation from all suffering and the cycle of birth and death.
    Buddha sat under the Bodhi tree in a state of strange happiness for many days.Then he decided to teach what he had realised and thought of his 5 ascetic followers who were in Sarnath at that time.When Mahatma Buddha met them,the ascetics were surprised to see the divine radiance on his face.And so,Buddha gave his first sermon in the deer park in Sarnath.

Next: Contn'd on Page 4

How to deal Depression

Recent times have seen a lot written and spoken about depression. Undiagnosed depression is said to lead to a host of problems like chronic anxiety, anger bouts and even pain disorders. Depression can affect relationships and careers if not diagnosed and treated in time.
    Actress Deepika Padukone received lot of positive feedback when she opened up about her own battle with depression. The star said that there should be no embarrassment or hesitation in asking for help when it comes to dealing with depression and that it would help them hugely.Experts say,the sooner one accepts that there is a problem and seeks treatment, the better(and at times quicker) the recovery.
Loneliness may exacerbate depression.Even in a bustling city like Mumbai (India)one may feel alone.Other factors like marital discord,extreme work pressure, high competition and expectations can lead to depression. Don't, however,allow it to drag you down.


1)Continuous feeling of sadness or anxiety for no specific reason.

2)Loss of appetite or significant increase in appetite leading to drastic weight loss or gain.

3)Having trouble sleeping or sleeping all the time.

4)Feeling irritable irritable about little things and losing your temper often.

5)Think that nothing will ever go right in your life and feel restlessness.

6)Feelings of pessimism,hopelessness, guilt,worthlessness or helplessness often reported in depressed people.

7)Disinterest in regular activities and cutting from social dos.

8)Experiencing low energy levels and feeling tired almost all the time.

9)Having problem concentrating on regular tasks and remembering occasions.

Sadly,feelings of depression often are viewed as a sign of weakness rather than as a signal that something is wrong.The absolute fact that people with depression can't simply 'snap out of it' and feel better spontaneously.
For anyone who is facing treatment, congratulate yourself on the awareness and the fact that you love yourself enough to want to feel good.

  Just read this letter which vice principal of La Marts wrote-
Dear Parents,
        The board exam results will be coming out soon.You must be anxious for your child to get a 90% or so.It's a matter of your reputation. But pls remember amongst the students who have given exams is an artist who doesn't need to understand Math,an entrepreneur who doesn't care abt History, a musicio whose Chemistry marks don't matter.Don't take away self confidence from them if they score less.Tell them,no matter what they score,you love them.One exam won't take away their dreams and talent..

Compiled from Times of India and LaMarts 

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Computers-How to write SQL in Oracle (practical aspect)


Enter username, password for Oracle(scott,tiger)

You will see something like this

Start writing SQL

Create database

SQL>create database <database name>
SQL>create database pp
Press enter to create database

Create Table in database

SQL>create table <table name>
SQL>create table xx(nm varchae(5),roll varchar(5));
Table created msg displayed

Insert rows into table

SQL>insert into <table name>values('xx','yy');
SQL>insert into xx values('shobhna','001');

Msg displayed: 1 row created

SQL>insert into xx values ('cc','002');
Msg displayed: 1 row created


SQL>insert into xx values ('dd','003');
Msg displayed: 1 row created

And so on you can insert records in table

Select query is used to display rows in table

SQL>select * from xx;
NM              ROLL
Shobhna        001
cc                      002
dd                     003


SQL>update xx set roll='005' where nm='dd';

Msg displayed: 1 row updated

SQL>select * from xx;
NM              ROLL
Shobhna        001
cc                      002
dd                     005->previously 003,now                                            005

Delete from <table name> where nm='Shobhna';


Drop table<table name>;
Drop table items;

I am a Positive Thinker

My Beliefs are:

1)As a human being,I am the best creation of God.

2)It is a rare privilege to be born as a human being.

3)I am the divine architect of my own life.

4)Life is a continuous flow of experiences good and bad.

5)There is a divine purpose behind each experience.

6)I take a positive message from each experience and enrich my life.

7)I take my difficulties as a sign of life and use my mind power to handle them.

8)I believe that with a positive attitude I can handle all my difficulties and give a a purpose to them.

9)The goal of life is to achieve divinity and all our experiences are steps in that direction.

10)The only way to achieve divinity is to perform my best in whatever field I work with full integrity.

11)If I do so,God will never let me down.

From Kabir Jyoti 


1)Books and friends should be few and good.

2)One who has a book is not alone.

3)With every book you buy,you add a millimeter to your mental stature.

4)Reading all the good books is like a conversation with the finest men of past centuries.

5)Reading is to mind what exercise is to the body.

6)Reading should be in proportion to thinking, and thinking in proportion to reading.

7)The habit of reading is the only one which lasts when all other pleasures fade.

8)One who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who cannot read.

9)To read without reflecting is like eating without digesting.

10)There is a difference between reading and study just as there is a difference between seeing and observation. One may see without observing and read without studying.

Compiled from Kabir Jyoti

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Story of Mahatma Buddha cont'nd page 2

Page 2

Siddhartha from his very childhood was kindhearted. One day,when he was playing in the palace garden a swan hit by an arrow fell near him.As Siddhartha was attending to the wounded swan,his cousin Devadatta came running and said,"This swan is mine as I have shot it!"But Prince Siddhartha refused to give his cousin the swan.
   Devadatta angrily complained to King Suddhodana. After listening to them both,the king asked his jury to settle the dispute. Devadatta argued that the swan was his,as he had shot it.But Siddhartha said calmly,"If the swan had died then it would have belonged to Devadatta.But I saved its life.Life belongs to its Savior ,not destroyer!"Impressed by Siddhartha's argument the jury gave him the swan.
    One day,the king and his attendants noticed that Siddhartha was missing,and they started looking for him.A little later,they found him sitting under a tree absorbed in meditation. The king was worried."I must distract hisind from all thoughts of austerity,"he thought.So,a luxurious palace was built to divert his mind and Siddhartha was not allowed to go out of it.
     By the time Siddhartha was sixteen, he had grown up to be a handsome young prince.King Suddhodhana thought,'It is time Siddhartha should get married so that he never abandons family life.'And so,Siddhartha was married to Princess Yasodhara.But Siddhartha often thought,'I wonder how life is outside this palace?'After some time,Siddhartha  and Yasodhara were blessed with a baby boy called Rahula.
   Siddhartha was very affected by people's sufferings.So he thought,'I will find a way to stop suffering.'He decided to abandon his family and kingdom. So,one night,at the age of 29,Siddhartha left his wife and infant son accompanied by his charioteer Channa.
    The 2 travelled for sometime and finally stopped near a river.Siddhartha shaved his hair and discarding his princely robes wore the garb of an ascetic.Calmly he said to Channa,'Now my quest for truth begins.'Asking Channa to return to the palace,Siddhartha went to Rajagriha and began living like an ascetic, begging for alms.


Networking contn'd-Page 2,Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A MAN covers a city,eg. Cable TV in cities.
A special standard has adopted for MAN is called DQDB(Distributed Queue Dual Bus).
Recent development in high-speed wireless internet access resulted in another MAN,which has been standardized as IEEE 802.16
A key aspect of a MAN is that there is broadcast medium to which all the computers are attached.
A n/w can be made by following topologies:
1.Star n/w
2.Tree n/w
3.Mesh n/w

Continued on Page 3 - Star Network

A Wonderful Quote on Motivation!

First stadium in world that is under Sea

First stadium in the world which is under the sea at Dubai,opened on 25th April 2015.

Page 2-Biology,Amphibians cont'nd

Page2 (amphibians cont'nd)

Limbless Amphibians

Limbless amphibians are included in order Apoda and sometimes called as blind worms also(eyes poorly or less developed)
They mostly inhabit tropical and subtropical regions of Americas,Africa and Asia excluding Medagasca.They do not have fossil forms.
1)They are burrowing forms except few strictly aquatic forms.They burrow in moist ground with their strong heads.
2)They are long body worm like burrowing animals and resemble large earthworms.
3)Limbs and girdles abscent.
4)In many genera in grooves a series of small calcified scales are found unlike other amphibians. Due to linear arrangement of these scales in transverse grooves false segmentation appears in their body.
5)Eyes small functionless and covered by skin.
6)Mouth terminal.
7)They are carnivorous in food habit feeding upon small animals which are found on ground.
8)Tail either absent or very small just like Anurans.
9)Anus or Vent present at posterior end of body at ventral surface.
10)There is a characteristic sensory protrusable tentacle present on side of face between nostril and eyes in all species. It arises from a special groove in maxilla and called as facial tentacle. It compensates for sensory organ. It is protruded by being descended with blood like eractile organ and retracted by strong muscles.

11)Tympanic cavity and tympanic membrane absent. Columella also absent.
12)Kidney extends whole length of coelom.
13)Liver posteriorly constricted into many numbers of lobes.
14)Laryngotracheal chamber is prolonged into distinct trachae supported by cartilage.
 Tracheal lungs are found in these animals just like snails.Left lung is rudimentary (because body is not narrow, therefore cannot accommodate)
15)Comus arteriosus is without spiral valve.There are only 2 pairs of aortic arches i.e. systemic arch and pulmonary arch.
16)Unlike 4 branchial clefts in embryonic life of Apoda.
17)Fertilization is internal with the help of enlarged,eversible cloacal valve which serves as copulatory organ.It is armed with hooks.
Copulatory organ

18)Skull differs considerably from modern amphibians and reveals resemblances with extinct labrynthodontia i.e. limbless amphibians are primitive and retain some primitive characters mentioned below:
1.Skull solid,compact on dorsal side and have large number of bones than modern amphibian skull.
2.Cranium covered by dermal bones.
3.A pair of post orbital and post frontal bones are present.
4.Frontal and parietal are not fused and separate unlike modern amphibians.
5.Orbit is small and surrounded by bones.
6.Hyoid apparatus and dentary primitive.
7.Vertebral column also differs in many respect from modern amphibians such as
1.Number of vertebrae numerous i.e. 200 to 300 and centrum is me amphicoelus.
2.Notochord persists.
3.First vertebra devoid of odontoid process.
4.Ribs bifurcated.

20.These are either oviparous, ovoviviparous and sometimes viviparous.In oviparous forms female guards eggs in burrows after egg laying until larvae hatch out.

Continued on Page 3

Camel Milk cures many diseases

Camel milk is well known for its traditional cures and has good nutritive value.
Research on Camel milk suggests it is lower in cholesterol, protein and sugar and so it can be easily tolerated by lactose intolerant people. It is higher in minerals (sodium,potassium, zinc,magnesium, iron and copper),vitamins and insulin which adds to its beneficial properties.
  It also has high concentration of volatile fatty acids as linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids which are beneficial in human nutrition.
   Camel milk is antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, antioxudative,antithromboric,antihypertensive and has immune modulatory effects.It is antiulcerogenic as it is effective against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol. It has positive role in treating jaundice, splenic problems, asthma, anemia, piles and diabetes.
  Raw camel milk has a role in achieving glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes patients.Camel milk contains approximately 52 units of insulin/litre.
The drawback with oral insulin is coagulum formation and denaturation in acidic pH of stomach. But camel milk does not form coagulum in stomach keeping insulin protein intact.This intact protein is absorbed from intestine and maintains normal glycemic level in Type1 diabetes patients.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Plants do Maths to get through the Night

Research shows that plants do accurate maths to prevent starvation at night.By doing so,they use up their starch reserves at a constant rate so that they run out of food almost precisely at dawn.
 During day they use sun's energy to make food.By energy from sun they convert carbon dioxide into sugars and starch.Onc the sun sets,they must depend on a store of starch to prevent starvation.
   Scientists at John Innes Centre have shown that plants make precise adjustments to their rate of starch consumption. These ensure that the starch lasts until dawn even if night comes early unexpectedly or size of starch store varies.And to adjust starch consumption so precisely they must be performing arithmetic division.
   During night,mechanisms inside leaf measure the size of starch store and estimate length of time until dawn. Information about time comes from an internal clock,similar to our own body clock.The size of starch store is then divided by length of time until dawn to set correct rate of starch consumption,so that by dawn around 95% of starch is used up.If it is used up too fast plants will starve during night and stop growing,and if it is too slow,it may be wasted.

Learn Letter Writing by these websites this vacation!

Learn how to write:

 Cover Letter,Invitation Letter,Request Application, Offer Letter,Appointment Letter,Welcome Letter,Discipline Letter,Introduction Letter,Love Letter,Suggestion Letter,Thanks Letter after Interview, Congrats Letter,Firing Letter,Leave Letter,Letter of Appeal,Letter of Interest etc.











Saturday, May 16, 2015

Foods and drinks that will keep you energized and cool during Summer!

Foods to include in diet during Summer everyday:


Add some roasted cumin,along with coriander leaves to buttermilk to make it tastier.
Buttermilk helps digestive system run smoothly.


Tomatoes are natural sunscreens protecting skin from sunrays.
You can include them in salads or regular meals.


Watery fruits like watermelon are tastier substitutes of hydrating us with water during Summer.


Yogurt has cooling effect on stomach and keeps check on calories as it is low in fat.Combine low fat yogurt with fresh berries for summer smoothie.
Yogurt is high in protein.


Rightly said "cool as a cucumber".
Sprinkle cucumber with salt and pepper,or take it as a juice.


Citrus fruits work well during Summer. They are high in fibre,vitamin C and provide necessary sugar to body.

7)Coconut Water

Coconut water quenches thirst.It also has several health benefits. The juice has sugar,electrolytes and minerals to replenish hydration in body.

8)Sugarcane Juice

To retain water in body have a glass of sugarcane juice.It also cools the body.
As it has sugar,don't add extra sugar to juice.

Fruit Popsicles(Strawberry Bar,Chocolate Bar,Fig Bar..), quick and easy to make!

  These popsicles(strawberry bars,chocolate bars,fig bars..)  are a nice way to replenish the minerals lost while sweating.Fruits are thirst quenching
and have an instant pick me up effect.Pomegranate is heart-friendly.It has low glycemic index so recommended for diabetic patients and obese.
Nutritionist Naini Setalvad says,artificially flavored drinks don't help hidrate body,"1 glass of tetrapack juice adds 10 spoons of sugar,it makes one hyper giving sugar rush,after which it gives an energy plunge."

Some easy to make Fruit Popsicles this Summer


1)Strawberry Lassi-cles
Make strawberry and yogurt mix.Freeze in Popsicle mould.Enjoy.

2)Peach and Basil-sicle
Puree fresh peaches,add lime juice,some water and basil leaves.Freeze in mould.It's ready.

3)Vegan chocolate with pine nuts
Mix liquid chocolate almonds(finely chopped),vanilla,roasted pine nuts.Freeze in moulds.Its ready.

4)Sweet Corn-sicle
Boil corn kernels, add coconut milk,pinch of vanilla and salt.

5)Low fat Fig-sicle
Use figs,vanilla,yogurt and sliced figs and freeze in moulds. 

Friday, May 15, 2015

Computers-MS Access

MS Access

MS Access is a powerful database management system that functions in the windows environment and allows to create and process data in a database.Some of the key features are:
Data entry and update:Access provides easy mechanisms for adding,changing and deleting data,including the ability to make mass changes in a single operation.
Queries:Using Access,allows to ask complex questions concerning data in the database very easily and receive instant answers.
Forms:Access helps to produce attractive and useful forms for viewing and updating data.
Reports:Access contains a feature to create sophisticated reports easily for presenting data.
Database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access,retrieval and use of that data.Access allows to add,change and delete data in the database.
A database consists of a collection of tables in Access.The rows in the tables are called records.A field contains a specific piece of information within the record.
Starting Access
Click on Start button.
Click on All Programs.
Click on MS Office.
Click on MS Access.

Understanding Access Window
Title bar:It shows the name of the displayed database.
File tab:It displays file commands as New and Open.
Quick Access Toolbar:It displays quick access buttons to Save,Undo and Redo commands.
Status bar:displays information about the current object or view.
Create a New Table
By entering data into a table,you can start a database.Tables consist of columns and rows that intersect to form cells for holding data.Each row is considered to be a record in a table.You can use columns to hold fields in a table.
Click on create tab on the ribbon.
Click on table button.
Access opens a new table in datasheet view.
Double-click the column header to create a field name.
Type a name for the field.
Press Enter key from keyboard.
Click on next column.
Select the data type for the field.Eg. select Text,if you want to add Name field.
If you want to change the data type,click on the arrow button andame column.
change the data type according to your need.
After selecting the data type,its properties will be displayed in the lower pane.
After selecting the data type,press the TAB key to move the insertion point to the description column.
Press TAB key again to move to the Field Name column in the second row.
Type the text in field name column.
Press the TAB key to move to the Data Type column.
The word ‘Text’ is currently displayed in that field.
Press the TAB key to move the insertion point to Description column,if you want the data type as text.
Type the text for the description column.
Repeat steps to make the remaining entries in the table to complete it.

Setting a Primary Key
A primary key is a key that differentiates the records in a file.The data stored in a key field contains data that is unique to a specific record.A student record,example,would use Roll number as a key field because it uniquely identifies each student.
In each new table that you create,you’ll want to set one field as the primary key.Access uses this key to relate this table’s records to those in another table.
Choose the field that you want to set as the primary key.
Click on the primary key button.
The field will be set as the primary key,indicating by a small key in the field of selector column.To remove it,select the primary key field and click on the primary key button again.
Save a Table
After creating a new table,it must be saved to make it a permanent part of the database.
Right click on the table’s tab.
Click on Save.
Type a name for the table.
Click on OK.
The table remains open,and its new name appears on its tab.
Insert and Delete fields
New fields can be inserted and existing removed into a field list.A new row appears in the grid-above the one selected.
Select the field where you want new field should appear above.
Click on design tab.
Click on insert rows.
A new row appears above the selected row.
Type a field name and choose a field type.

Select a field you want to delete.
Click on design tab.
Click on delete rows.
The row will be deleted,along with any data that the fields have.

Understanding Data Type
Each field has a data type that defines what you can store in it.Data entry is restricted to valid entries for the type you choose,which helps to prevent data entry errors.Example,you cannot enter letters in a field set to Number,and you must enter valid dates or times in a date/time field.

Text:This is a general purpose field containing any data.It has a limit of 255 characters and cannot be used for numeric calculation.
Memo:This has a limit of 63,999 characters;used for detailed,descriptive fields.
Number:This type stores numeric data that you can use in calculations.It can also hold symbols,as decimal points and commas.
Date/Time:This type only stores numbers representing valid dates and times.
Currency:Stores currency data that you can use in calculations.
Auto Number:stores a sequencial number for each record.
Yes/No:The value -1 represents Yes,and the value 0 represents No,but the field can be formatted to display values as
True/False or Yes/No.
OLE Object:stores objects created in another application-as Word or Excel-that you can link to or fix in an Access table.
Hyperlink:You can link to websites,email addresses,files on your computer,files on any other location.
Attachment:You can attach data files.

Change Data Type

The data type of a field can be changed anytime to better represent data.Field types should be set before entering data into table,field type can be changed anytime.

Click on the down arrow to ope the Data Type list for the field.
Click on new type.
To save the changes to the table,click on save.
Click on yes to allow the deletion of records that violate the new field type’s rules.
No can be clicked to abandon the change.

Rename a table

A table can be renamed at any time.Access automatically updates all references to the table throughout the database.The table must be closed in order to rename it.

Right click on the table name in the navigation pane.A short cut menu appears.
Choose rename from the shortcut menu.The table name appears in edit mode.
Type the new name for the table and press enter key from the keyboard.
The new name appears on the table.
Click on the table name in the navigation pane.
Click on Home tab.
Click on delete button from record group.
A confirmation dialog box opens.
Click Yes.
The table will delete.

Adding Records to a table

The first step is to create a table by building the structure and saving the table.The second step is to add records to the table.The table must be open so that the records can be added to the table.The table displays in datasheet view.In datasheet view,the table is represented as a collection of rows and columns called a datasheet.

Double click on table in the customer:database window.
Type the customer id in the first customer id field.
Press the tab key to complete the entry for the customerid field.
Type the following entries by pressing the tab key after each one to complete the record.
After typing the last entry,press the tab key.
The insertion point comes to the customerid field in the second row.
Add the remaining records by following the same steps you used to add first record.
Click on save,to save the changes.

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

MS Power Point

Powerpoint is the component of microsoft office.It combines text,cli art,drawing features and other objects to create self running or interactive display.
Powerpoint offers several advantages-
1.It navigates easily through the presentation.
2.It allows information from other sources to be available for presentation.
3.The computer uses the capability of its color to its full extent.
4.It utilizes multimedia effect.
5.Projection equipment is not required.
Getting started with MS Powerpoint:
Click start.
Click Programs.
Click MS Powerpoint.
Click Blank presentation.
Enter title of your presentation.
Click insert.
Click chart.
Or click pictures.
Or click on MS Word Table.
In word table enter the number of columns and number of rows.Type contents in word table.
Changing the case of the text:
Click format.
Select change case
Select text for the changing the case.
Click OK.
To display the slide,select slide sorter option from View menu.

Delete a slide
Select the slide to be deleted.
Select delete slide from edit menu.

Adding clip art pictures

Click insert.
Select clip art.
Select the picture.
Click on insert.
Selected picture is inserted in slide.

Saving Presentation:
From File menu select save as option.
Save as dialog box is displayed.
Click on Save button.

Know Computer Security

Computer Security

Now-a-days computers are becoming a reliable source to create,store and manage critical information.It is also crucial that users take measures to protect their computers and data from loss,damage,and misuse.For example,a company must ensure that information,such as credit records,employee and customer data and purchase information are secure and confidential.
Computer security risk is a term known for any event or action that could be harmful for a computer hardware,software,data information or processing capability.Some breaches to computer security are accidental while others are planned.Any illegal act involving a computer is generally referred to as a computer crime.The term cybercrime refers to online or internet-based illegal acts.
The following sections describes some of the more common computer security risks and safeguards,you can take to minimize or prevent their consequences.
Computer Viruses
Virus is a potentially damaging program in a computer,which negatively effects or infects your computer without your knowledge and alters the working of the computer.More specifically,a computer virus is a segment of program code from some outside source that implants itself in a computer.Once a virus is in your computer,your files and operating system may be damaged.
The increased use of networks,the internet and email has accelerated the spread of computer viruses.With these technologies,computer users easily can share files and any related viruses.Viruses are activated on your computer in three basic ways:
(1)Opening an infected file
(2)Running an infected program
(3)Booting the computer with an infected floppy disk in the disk drive.
The most common way of virus in a computer is through the attachment in an email.Before you open or execute any email attachment,you should ensure that the email message is from a trusted source.A trusted source is a company or person you believe will not send you a virus infected file knowingly.You should immediately delete any email received from an unknown source without opening or executing the attachment.Thus you can protect your computer against viruses if you follow the precautionary measures.
Viruses in computer are not generated accidentally but are programmed intentionally by a programmer known as a virus author.Some virus authors find writing viruses a challenge.Others write them to cause destruction.Writing a virus program usually requires significant programming skills.Some viruses are harmless ranksthat simply freeze a computer temporarily or display sounds or messages.The music bug virus,example,instructs the computer to play a few chords of music.Other viruses destroy or corrupt data stored on the hard disk of the infected computer.If your computer acts differently from usual,it may be infected with a virus.
Today,viruses pose as serious threat to the safety of a computer.Currently,more than million known virus programs exist with an estimated 6 new virus programs discovered each day.
Though there are numerous variations,3 main virus types known to exist are,boot sector,file and macro.
A boot sector virus also known as a system virus,executes when a computer boots up because it resides in the boot sector of a floppy disk or the master boot record of a hard disk.When you leave a floppy disk in the floppy disk drive and boot up the computer,the computer attempts to execute the boot sector on the disk in drive A.The hard disk of a computer can be infected by any virus on the floppy disk’s boot sector even if the disk is not the boot disk.

Tuesday, May 12, 2015



Photoshop is a graphic editor  that allows you to create,modify,combine and optimize digital images.Photoshop creates sophisticated images for both print and web.
You can brighten,darken and change the hue of colors in parts of image with photoshop’s dodge,burn and similar tools.Photoshop’s effects let you easily add drop shadows,3d shading and other styles to images.
After editing,images can be used in a variety of ways.
Menu Bar
Displays the menus that contain most of photoshops commands.
Option Bar
Displays controls that let you customize the selected tool in the toolbox.
Displays a variety of icons,each one representing an image editing tool.You click and drag inside your image to apply most of the tools.
Image Window
Contains each image you open in photoshop.
Small windows that give you access to common commands and resources.You can click the tabs and icons to display and hide panels.
The Photoshop Toolbox
The toolbox contains many separate tools.You can simply click on the tool to select it for working on your image.If you leave your mouse cursor over the tool,photoshop will indicate the name of the tool and the keyboard shortcut to access the tool.A small black arrow in the bottom right corner of the tool indicates additional tools are stacked behind.
Create a new image windows
Photoshop project can be started by creating a blank image.
Click on file.The file menu will open.
Click on new.
Type a name for the image.
Cropping the image
Crop tool can change the size of an image.
Click on crop tool.
Click and drag to select the area of the image you want to keep.
You can click and drag the sides and corner handles to adjust the size of the cropping boundary.
Zoom Tool
With zoom,magnification of an image can be changed.
Selecting with marquee tools
Marquee tools are used to select a rectangular or elliptical area of image.
Selecting Lasso tool
You can create oddly shaped selections with lasso tool.Then you can move,delete,or stylize the selected area using other photoshop commands.
Click on lasso tool.
Click and drag with your cursor to make a selection.
Drag to the beginning point and release the mouse button to complete the selection.

Moving the selection

With the help of move tool,a selection can be moved which helps to rearrange elements of image.

Rubber Stamp Tool

You can clean up small flaws or erase elements in image with the help of rubber stamp tool.The tool copies information from one area of an image to another.

Selecting with Magic Wand Tool

Groups of similarly colored pixels can be selected with the use of Magic Wand tool.

Click on magic wand tool.
Click on the area you want to select inside the image.
Photoshop selects the pixels you clicked and any similarly colored pixels near it.

Using Paintbrush tool

You can use the paintbrush tool to add color to your image.

C lick on the Paintbrush tool.

Click on the rubber stamp in the toolbox.
Click on the down arrow of brush.
Select the brush size and type.
Press the alt key on the keyboard and click the area of the image where you want to copy from.
Click and drag to apply the rubber stamp.
The area is copied to where you click and drag.
Click and drag repeatedly over the area to achieve the desired effect.

Color Modes

You can change the color modes in the picture.

RGB Mode

RGB is the most common mode for working with color images in photoshop.

Click on image in the menu bar.
Click on Mode.
Click on RGB color.
Click on window to view the different color components of an RGB image.
Click on channels.
Click on any channel(Red,Green,Blue).
A grayscale version of the image displays the amount of channels the image contains.

Converting color images to grayscale

To remove the color from your image,you can convert it to grayscale mode.

Click on image in the menu bar.
Click on mode.
Click on grayscale.
Click on Discard.

Foreground and Background colors

A foreground color and a background color can be selected to work in photoshop.

Click on foreground color icon.
Click in the color window to select a color.
Drag the slider or enter the value in the boxes to change the range of color in the window.
Click on OK.

Click on the background Color icon.
The color picker dialog box will open.
Click in the color window to select a color.
Drag the slider to change the range of color in the window.
Click on OK.

Selecting color using Eyedropper Tool

You can select a color from an open image with the eyedropper tool.This tool enables you to paint using a color already present in your image.

Click on the eyedropper tool.
Place the eyedropper tool over an open image and click to select the color under eyedropper tool’s tip.

Brightness and Contrast

You can adjust the brightness and contrast of image.

Click on Image in the menu bar.
Click on adjustments.
Click on Brightness/Contrast.
To lighten the image,click and drag the brightness:slider to the right,or darken the image by dragging it to the left.
To increase the contrast,click and drag the contrast:slider to the right,or to decrease contrast,drag it to the left.
Click on OK.

Color Balance

To change the amount of specific colors in your image,you can use the color balance command.
Click on Image in the menu bar.
Click on adjustments.
Click on color balance.
Select the radio button of tones in the image that you want to affect.
Click and drag the color slider to adjust the color or type a number from -100 to 100 in the color levels:field.
Click on OK.

Using Dodge Effect

You can use the dodge tool to lighten a specific area of an image.Dodge is a photographic term that describes the diffusing of light when developing a film negative.

Click on the dodge tool.
Click on the down arrow button of brush:menu and choose the brush size and type that you would like to use.
You can also select the range of colors you want to affect.
Click and drag over the area that you want to lighten.

Using Burn Effect

You can use the burn tool to darken a specific area of an image.Burn is a photographic term that describes the focusing of light when developing a film negative.

Click and hold the dodge tool.A box appears.
Click the burn tool in the box that appears.
Click on the down arrow button of brush:menu and choose the brush size and type.
You can also select the range of colors you want to affect.
Click and drag over the area that you want to darken.

Computers-Input and Output devices

Input and Output Devices

We know about different parts of a computer.All these parts are either Input or Output Device.
Step1:Take some mangoes.
Step2:Cut them.
Step3:Put them in the juicer.
Step4:Switch on the juicer for 5-6 minutes.
Step5:Switch on the juicer.
Step6:Pour out the juice.

The mangoes are input.
The juice we get is the output.
Device means machine(Here juicer is the device).
A computer needs information and Data to work.
In the same way all characters,numbers and words given to the computer are called Input.
The result given by the computer is called Output.
Input devices transfer data and information into the computer.
Output devices give the desired results out of the computer.

Parts of Computer

Parts of a Computer


Monitor-shows the pictures as we see on the television.
Keyboard-works for computer and helps writing characters.
Mouse-points on the monitor as your teacher points on the blackboard with a finger.
CPU-brain of the computer as we have.
Memory-to store figures on memory chip.
It is also known as Visual Display Unit.
It can be black and White or Colored.
It comes in various sizes.

It looks like a typewriter.
It is used to type alphabets,numbers and symbols.
There are special keys for special functions.
Computer has 4 main parts-Monitor,CPU,Memory and Keyboard.
CPU is known as the brain of the computer.
What we do on the computer can be seen on the monitor.
Keyboard has many keys which are used to type alphabets,numbers and other special characters.

Some More parts of a computer

It is also called a pointing device.
It has 2 or more buttons.
Clicking it,selects an item on the screen.
It helps us to draw pictures on the screen.
When mouse is moved on the desk,the pointer on the screen moves in the same direction.
A mouse has cord to connect to the CPU and cordless as well.

It is used to print letters and drawing on the paper.
Popular printers are Dot matrix,Deskjet and Laser Printers.

It stores data/information as we write in our notebook for future use.
It is placed in a floppy disk drive.
It stores less amount of information.

Floppy Disk Drive
It is used to read and write the data to a floppy as we use our eyes while reading or writing.

Hard Disk Drive
It can store a large amount of data.
It is fixed inside the cabinet of computer.
It comes in various storage capacities.

CD stands for Compact Disk.
It can contain Games,Music,Movies and Programs.
It has shiny surface.

CD ROM Drive
It reads data from the CD ROM.

It is used to play games,on the computer as we play video games.
It is an input device.

Speakers are used for listening to music and other sounds.

We can record our voice using a microphone.

It scans text/image and puts it into computer as we see any picture and store it in the memory.

Mouse is used to move the mouse pointer on the screen in the desired direction.
Printer is used to print the output on the paper.
CD ROM is used to store movies,songs and other data.
Floppy is also used to store information but has lessor capacity in comparison to CD ROM.
Joystick is used to play games.
Scanner copies images to the computer.
We can listen to music with the help of speakers.

Computers-MS Excel

MS Excel
MS Excel is a powerful spreadsheet program that allows you to organize data,complete calculations,make decisions,graph data.
Excel allows you to organize data in rows and columns.These rows and columns collectively are called a worksheet.In electronic worksheet data is organized in same manner as manual worksheet.As like MS Word,spreadsheet has basic features to help create,edit and format worksheets.
Starting Excel
Click start.
Click All Programs.
Click MS Office.
Click MS Excel.

On opening Excel program,a blank workbook is displayed called Book1.

Title bar shows name of the displayed document.

File Tab help manage file information to save,open,print information for the document.

Quick Access Toolbar displays quick access buttons to save,undo and redo commands.

Program Window Controls buttons are used to minimize the program window,restore the window to full size or close the window.

The workbook contains sheets,called worksheets.A new workbook contains three worksheets.Each sheet has a name displayed on a sheet tab at the bottom of the workbook.

A cell is called the intersection of each column and row in a worksheet.A cell is the basic unit of a worksheet into which data is entered.

Each worksheet in a workbook has 16384 columns and 1048576 rows.

A cell is referred by its unique address or cell reference.To identify a cell,specify column letter first,followed by the row number,eg B8.

Formulas and Functions

Formulae are expressions which help you to calculate and analyse data in your worksheet.A formula in the worksheet always begins with an equal sign.
In maths,when you write a formula,you write out the values and the operators,followed by an equal sign(=).as 2+2=.
But in Excel,formulas begin with an equal sign(=),as =2+2.

Cell Referencing

Every cell in a worksheet has a unique address,also called a cell reference.

Cell Range

A group of related cells in a worksheet is called a range.Cell ranges are identified by their anchor points,upper left corner and lower right corner.The range reference includes both anchor points separated by a colon,eg A1:A3 includes A1,A2,A3.

Using Average,Max,Min Functions

If you want to calculate the average,highest,lowest sale of few persons in January,February,March from a range you can use functions like Average,Max,Min.
Excel,by default,includes formula called functions to help in computing the data.A function takes a value,performs an operation and returns a result to the cell,eg,=AVERAGE(G5:G14).

Creating a Chart

A chart can be created to compare data and view patterns and trends easily.After creating a chart,chart tools on the ribbons can be used to fine tune the chart to display and explain the data.

Select the range of data that you want on chart.
Click on Insert tab on the Ribbon.
Click on chart type from the Charts group.
Excel immediately creates a chart,places it on the worksheet.
Excel displays three chart tabs(Design,Layout,Format)for working with the chart.

Sunday, May 10, 2015

MS Word-Mail Merge!


Open the Word document that you want to use as the letter.
Click the Mailings tab.
Click on Start Mail Merge.
Click on Letters.
Click on Select Recipients.
The New Address List dialog box appears,displaying areas where information can be entered.
Type the appropriate information for each person.
To enter information for another person,click on New Entry.
On finishing creating mailing list,click OK.
Click on save button to save the file.

Computers-MS Word


The word processor is a software package which helps to enter and edit an entire document much faster than the usual manual way.MS Word is a window based application and is normally available in the program menu or in the desktop as an icon.
The menu bar provides access to the various word commands.The toolbar contains some useful buttons which help us to access some commands very quickly.
The formatting toolbar helps to format the document.The Ruler is used to set the margin of the page and is also used to set tabs.
There are two options to work on a word document.Either you will work on the pre-existing file or you will create a new one.For this,
a)Click on File menu.
b)On the menu list that drops:
click on Open menu,for pre existing file.
Click on new menu,to create new file.
For saving a document,click on File menu and then Save.
Selecting text:
Bring cursor to left of the text.
Hold shift key.
Gradually keep on pressing the right arrow key of the keyboard.
Now, when the text is selected, we can do various formatting to the text.
Bring mouse pointer on B and then click it. Selected text becomes bold.
To bring it back to normal text, click it again.
To make the text italics, click I next to ‘B’.
To underline text, click U button next to I.

To close all opened documents, click exit in the File menu.

Adding WordArt
Select the text you want to convert into the WordArt.
Click on Insert tab.
Click on WordArt.A list of options appears.
Click on the WordArt style you want to use.
Type text.
Click OK.

Creating a Table
Click in the document where you want to insert a table.
Click on Insert.
Click on Table.
Enter rows and columns.
Word adds table to the document.

Adding Page Number
Click on Insert
Click on Page Number.
Click on location for page numbers.

Change Page Orientation

Click on Page Layout.
Click on Orientation.Orientation may be portrait or landscape.Click an option.

Word changes the orientation.

Inserting a Page Break

If you wish to start a new page at the same specific location in your document,you can insert a page break.

Click in the document where you want to insert a page break.
Click on insert tab.
Cick on page break button.

Remove Page Break

Click on Draft View button from the status bar to display the document in Draft View.
A Page break line appears.
Click on page break line and then press Delete key from the keyboard.

  Changing Alignment of Text

Text can be aligned in different ways to enhance the appearance of document.By default,Word assigns the Left Align command.

Select the text that you want to format.
Click on Home tab.
Click on one of the following buttons:
Align Left to left align text.
Center button to center text.
Align Right to right align text.
Justify button to justify text.

Changing the Line Spacing

Select the text you want to use a different line spacing.
Click on Home tab.
Click on Line spacing to display the available line spacing options.
Click on the line spacing option you want to use.

Changing the Color of Text
Select text that you want to format.
Click on Home tab.
Click on down arrow of font color.
Click on any color.

Changing the size of text
Select the text  you want to change to a different font.
Click on Home tab.
Click on down arrow of font size.
Click on the size you want to use.

Count  words in a Document

When a work requires a specific number of words,you can use word count to count the number of words.

The number of words in the document is the number across from word count.
The number of words in the document appears on the status bar.

Set Line Spacing between paragraphs

The amount of space between paragraphs of text can be changed.

Select the text that you want to format.
Click on Home tab.
Change  line spacing by line spacing option.

Creating a bullet or number list

Items in a list can be separated by beginning each item with a bullet or number.

Select the text to be formatted.
Click on Home tab.
Click on a list button.
Bullets button can be clicked to create a bulleted list.

Indenting a Paragraph

To make paragraphs in document,text can be indented.

Select the paragraph needed to be indented.
Click on Home tab.
Click on increase indent to indent the left edge of paragraph.
To decrease the indent,click on decrease indent.
Find and replace text
Click at the beginning of document.
Click on Home tab.
Type the text you want to find.
Type the text you want to use,in place of the text you typed.
Click on Find.
Inserting Symbols
Click on the location where you want a symbol to appear.
Click on insert.
Click on symbol.

Deleting  text in document
You can delete the text that is no longer needed.
Select the text that you want to delete.
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Hit the Dot Game!


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A Beautiful piece on Mother's Day!


This is a truly BEAUTIFUL piece please read this at a slow pace, digesting every word and in not hurry....this is a treasure...

For those lucky to still be blessed with your Mom, this is beautiful

For those of us who aren't, this is even more beautiful. For those who are moms, you'll love this.

The young mother set her foot on the path of life. "Is this the long way?" she asked.

And the guide said:  "Yes, and the way is hard. And you will be old before you reach the end of it.

 But the end will be better than the beginning." But the young mother was happy, and she would not believe that anything could be better than these years.

So she played with her children, and gathered flowers for them along the way, and bathed them in the clear streams; and the sun shone on them, and the young Mother cried,

 "Nothing will ever be lovelier than this."

Then the night came, and the storm, and the path was dark, and the children shook with fear and cold, and the mother drew them close and covered them with her mantle, and the children said,

"Mother, we are not afraid, for you are near, and no harm can come."

 And the morning came, and there was a hill ahead, and the children climbed and grew weary, and the mother was weary.

But at all times she said to the children," A little patience and we are there." So the children climbed, and when they reached the top they said,

 "Mother, we would not have done it without you."

And the mother, when she lay down at night looked up at the stars and said,"This is a better day than the last, for my children have learned fortitude in the face of hardness.

Yesterday I gave them courage. Today, I ' ve given them strength."

And the next day came strange clouds, which darkened the earth, clouds of war and hate and evil, and the children groped and stumbled, and the mother said: "Look up. Lift your eyes to the light."

 And the children looked and saw above the clouds an everlasting glory, and it guided them beyond the darkness. And that night the Mother said,

 "This is the best day of all, for I have shown my children God."

 And the days went on, and the weeks and the months and the years, and the mother grew old and she was little and bent.

But her children were tall and strong, and walked with courage. And when the way was rough, they lifted her, for she was as light as a feather; and at last they came to a hill, and beyond they could see a shining road and golden gates flung wide.

And mother said,"I have reached the end of my journey.

 And now I know the end is better than the beginning, for my children can walk alone, and their children after them."

 And the children said,

"You will always walk with us, Mother, even when you have gone through the gates."

And they stood and watched her as she went on alone, and the gates closed after her.  And they said:

"We cannot see her but she is with us still.

 A Mother like ours is more than a memory.  She is a living presence......" Your Mother is always with you....

She's the whisper of the leaves as you walk down the street; she's the smell of bleach in your freshly laundered socks; she's the cool hand on your brow when you're not well.

Your Mother lives inside your laughter. And she's crystallised in every teardrop.

She's the place you came from, your first home; and she's the map you follow with every step you take.

She's your first love and your first heartbreak, and nothing on earth can separate you. Not time, not space... not even death!